南山雨

南山雨

他们在地底下已住了数千年!

河南省陕县,有个令国内外游人叹为观止的民间建筑奇迹,那就是“见树不见村,见村不见房,闻声不见人”的地坑院。

陕塬上,星罗棋布的村庄散落着数以万计的奇特民居,不说的话你或许根本就猜不到,这里竟然是个村子。

天井窑院,俗称地坑院,早在四千多年以前就已经存在了,现在还有分布至今仍有100多个地下村落、其中较早的院子有200多年的历史,住着六代人。

现存最早还住人的院子已有二百余年的历史,已住过六代人以上,保存较好的村庄有张村塬的人马寨和庙上村等。

据说三门峡的天气夏天炎热,冬天寒冷,住在这种地坑院里,冬暖夏暖,非常舒适。

河南地坑院是在平整的黄土地上,挖一个边长为10至12米的正方形或长方形的深坑,深6至7米。老一辈挖它个二三年,能让后几代人住上百年。

地坑院内各个窑洞分为主窑、客窑、厨窑、等功用,按照主窑所处方位不同称之为“东震宅”、“西兑宅”、“南离宅”、“北坎宅”几种。地坑院同样受到汉族传统文化八卦的影响,老百姓依“风水流脉”来确定院子主方向的朝向。


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